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閱讀理解關于推論題解題技巧-2019年高起点英语複習資料-江蘇成考

江蘇成人高考网www.jtgov.cn 發布時間: 2018年12月01日

閱讀理解關于推論題解題技巧-2019年高起点英语複習資料-江蘇成考


題幹中含有infer,conclude的推理題稱爲推論題。請求推出的定論也許與文章宗旨有關,也許聯系不大,但不論怎麽,碰到這種推理題,都應盡也許在速讀完全文後再做,由于它的綜合性較強。與宗旨有關的推論題,能夠仔細閱讀文中表達宗旨的有關句;在讀完文章後,掃一下選項,掃除不太也許的選項(如:與原文顯著相對立的,說到了原文找不到根據的實際、細節或觀念),將剩余的選項回原文尋覓言語根據,相互對照,能夠由原文外表文字信息合理推出來的,即爲准確答案。

例1

People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some rela-tionship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic(预言的)because a few have come true; they neglect or fail to notice the many that have not.

Consider also the belief that "the phone always rings when I'm in the shower. "If it does ring while you are in the shower, the even will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register(留下形象).

People. want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for example, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths "happen in

threes. "Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the

time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as

their "happening together" is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, the period of time

is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such beliefs.

We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an auto-mobile than the average person. Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling ex-plains, "Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values: careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy," This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.

Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(慎重的)in drawing conclusions. The "evidence" of everyday life is sometimes misleading.

What can be inferred from the passage?

A. Happenings that go unnoticed deserve more attention.

B. In a series of misfortunes the third one is usually the most serious.

C. People tend to make use of evidence that supports their own beliefs.

D. Believers of misfortunes happening in threes are cautious in interpreting events.

阅读一下选项,B与D在原文找不到根据,而C与文章首句People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some relationship.意思不符,所以均应扫除。文章榜首段和第二段各举了一个比如:榜首段指出大家由于一些愿望成真而忽略了大都愿望没有成为实际这一实际;第二段指出大家老是诉苦“每次淋浴电话就响”,但却忽略了大大都淋浴时电话并不响这一实际。这两个比如都阐明大家易于记住标明某种联系的少量事情,而对大都事情留意不行。因而A为准确答案。

例2

Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person's gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you per- mitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up(审察)and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interac-tion. You need to emit a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contact, what sociologist Erving Golfman(1963)calls“a dimming of the lights.’’

It can be inferred from the paragraph that

A.every glance has its significance

B.staring at a person is an expression of interest

C.a gaze longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable

D.a glance conveys more meaning than words

阅读一下选项,能够先扫除8与C,由于上文并未评论这两点;再看一下文中的逻辑构造,刚开端几句从总的方面论说:Exchange a glance with someone,then look away.Do you realize that you have made a statement.*Hold the glance for a second longer,and you have made a different statement.Hold it for 3 seconds,and the meaning has changed again.每一瞥的意义随时间安排长短改变而改变,接着举例阐明在不一样场合中的具体情况。由此可知,A:每一瞥均有其自身的意义(即各瞥意义不一样)为准确答案,D所说到的对比,在原文中找不到根据,应当扫除。

例3

A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades.

It can be inferred from the passage that maj or universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe .

A.rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students

B.punishment is more effective than rewarding

C.failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards

D.discouraging the students’anticipation for easy rewards is a matter of urgencv

这是文中Eisenberger举的一个比如(第二句),其意图是为了阐明Eisenberger的观念:假设教师老是让学生关注奖赏,或许对体现通常的学生也给高分,那么学生们终究都会不求进步——A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students,A表达的恰是此意。

例4

The human brain contains lo thousand million cells and each of these mav have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used tO discourage US and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human—like ability,but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon. In only lo or 20 years perhaps,we will be able to assemble a machine as compiex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelli-gent by loading in the right software(软件)or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. Once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon's long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe.

As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the con- struction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of peo-ple, will he within our power.

It can be inferred from the passage that

A. after the installation of a great number of ceils and connections, robots will be capable of self-reproduction

B. with the rapid development of technology, people have come to realize the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability

C. once we make a machine as complex as the human brain, it will possess intelligence

D. robots will have control of the vast, man-made world in space

准确答案为B。文章榜首段开端时叙说由于人脑极端杂乱,致使咱们扫除了制作智能机器人的也许性,但从第二旬后半有些开端阐明存在这种也许性;第二段首句进一步必定这种也许性:I think it certain that in decades,not centuries,machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors.第三段以智能机器人在将来的使用必定其呈现的也许性,由此能够推出B项为准确答案:跟着科技的迅速发展,有也许制作出智能机器人。

You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger’s eyes.Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an eleva-tor,you will make the other person exceedingly uncomfortable,and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself.

例5

Despite the good news, civil engineers aren't resting on their successes. Pinned to their drawing boards are blue prints(规划)for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even greater security to cities where earthquakes often take place.

In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a build- ing off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its founda- tion to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake's vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the op- posite direction.

The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, that would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.

It can be inferred from the passage that in minimizing the damage caused by earth- quakes attention should be focused on

A. the increasing use of rubber and steel in capital construction

B. the development of flexible building materials

C. the reduction of the impact of ground vibrations

D. early forecasts of earthquakes

有关抗震方法会集在第二段,其间第二句指出:Later,people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. 由此可知,削减地震损坏的方法是削减地上轰动所形成的冲击,C项符合题意,为准确答案。D项为无关答案,而A项与B项仅仅抗震资料的品种,其意图依然是为了削减地上轰动形成的冲击;实际上,只要能抗震,别的资料也行,所以应扫除它们。

例6

People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some rela- tionship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic(预言的)because a few have come true; they neglect or fail to notice the many that have not.

Consider also the belief that "the phone always rings when I'm in the shower". If it does ring while you are in the shower, the even will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register(留下形象).

People want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for exam-ple, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths "happen in threes". Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as their "happening together" is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, the period of time is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such be-liefs.

We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an auto-mobile than the average person. Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling ex-plains, "Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values., careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy," This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.

Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(慎重的)in drawing conclusions. The "evidence" of everyday life is sometimes misleading.

It can be concluded from the passage that

A. there is some truth even in the wildest dreams

B. one should take notice of other people's merits

C. there is no order or pattern in world events

D. we should not base our conclusions on accidental evidence

这道题为这篇文章的最终一道题,所以请求推出的定论也许在最终一段:Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(慎重的)in drawing conclusions.The“evidence”of everyday life is sometimes misleading.由此能够推出:不该当以随机根据为根底得出定论(由于它们有误导性)。因而D为准确答案。


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